Article

Between Reality and Mentality -Fifteenth Century Mathematics and Natural Philosophy Reconsidered-

Abstract

Why did the members of the Samarqand Observatory School stand closer to the science of kalām for metaphysical principles in the fifteenth century and reserve more space to Mathematics in the description of the nature? When we look at the works circulating among scientists and emerging terms in this period, we observe some relative advancement in mathematical sciences used for quantitative certainty, also problematization of the ontology of mathematical entities and of epistemological values of mathematical knowledge, and discussions on the legitimacy of mathematical models on the nature. We examine the roots of these questions in Islamic tradition of philosophical sciences and especially developments post-Marāgha Observatory School; and analyze the posed ideas in relation to the concept of nafs al-amr (fact of the matter), which relies at the center of all research and discussions.

Keywords

Ibn Sīnā Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī Qutb al-Dīn al-Rāzī Universals Essence Knowledge Existence