Article

Olumlama ve Olumsuzlama: İbn Sînâ’nın el-İbâre’sini Helenistik Şarihlerle Birlikte Okumak

Abstract

The relation of priority and posteriority between affirmation and negation, which Aristotle put forward in Peri Hermêneias, had some important consequences in terms of logic, attribution and judgment. The logical problem encountered here is the question whether the affirmation (i.e. affirming something of something) and negation (i.e., denying something of something) share the same status at being a statement. In the fifth chapter of the first article (I.5) of al-‘Ibâra, the volume from al-Shifa corpus that corresponds to Peri Hermêneias, Avicenna deals with affirmation and negation in terms of these logical consequences and reveals his own position on the subject by way of distinguishing the nexus and the judgement. However, the text of al-Shaikh al-Raîs presents some obscurities for the reader. The reason behind this obscurity is that in the background of Avicenna’s text lies a debate taking place among Hellenistic commentators. This article proposes to read this text along with the Hellenistic commentators in order to better understand the logical problem in the mentioned passages of al-‘Ibâra. Our guide in this reading will be Boethius, who wrote a commentary on Peri Hermêneias in Latin. In our study, we will try to reveal that the positions of the Hellenistic commentators (Alexander of Aphrodisias, Porphyrius and Syrianus) whose ideas Boethius conveyed, coincide with the views defended and criticized by Avicenna about affirmation and negation. In this respect, our reading in this article aims to better understand Ibn Sînâ’s relevant text and the logical conclusions of it, on the one hand; and the dimensions of the philosopher’s relationship with Hellenistic commentators, on the other.

Keywords

affirmation negation judgement logic al-‘Ibâra Peri Hermêneias Avicenna Aristotle Boethius Alexander of Aphrodisias Porphyrius Syrianus