Upholding God’s Essence: Ibn Taymiyya on the Createdness of the Spirit


Although scholarly attention has been paid to Ibn al-Qayyim’s popular Kitāb al-rūḥ, the soul-related views of his master are still ignored. Hence, this paper traces some of these ideas in Ibn Taymiyya’s Khalq al-rūḥ, in which he asserts the soul’s origination rather than its eternity, so as to uphold the idea of God’s essence. This paper consists of two parts. Part I problematizes Khalq in light of previous research, presents the sources of the study, and addresses some concepts that are significant for appreciating the development of its main argument. The five major arguments that Ibn Taymiyya invokes to justify his viewpoint shall be reconstructed from Khalq. Likewise, some of the ambiguities surrounding his identification of those who hold opposite views shall be resolved. Part II provides an annotated translation of Khalq.


Soul Spirit Nafs Rūḥ Eternal Created Ibn Taymiyya Ibn al-Qayyim Eschatology Corporeality